Day 1 :
Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati Assam -781039 India,
Keynote: Effect of Functionalized biopolymers on Stereocomplexation and Properties of Poly (Lactic Acid) Nanocomposite Films, Trays and 3D Printed Implants
Time : 10:50-11:50
Prof. Vimal Katiyar is a Coordinator of Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Polymers, in the department of Chemical Engineering at IIT Guwahati, India. The centre of excellence on sustainable polymers is focusing on development of cost-effective, bio-based and biodegradable plastic products and related technologies using various feedstock including biopolymers such as cellulose, chitosan, proteins, various protein grafted polysaccharides. He has published more than seventy peer reviewed publications in highly reputed journals such as American Chemical Society and Nature publishing journals. He has supervised seven PhD students and more than twenty students are pursuing PhD under his supervision. His recently featured book entitled as ‘Bio-based Plastics for Food Packaging Applications’ is published by Smithers Rapra, UK. He is a co-inventor of numerous granted patents in various countries including India, USA, Canada, Europe, Japan, etc. His research group has received multiple national and international innovation awards in the development of bio-based polymeric products, nanobiomaterials, and related technologies.
This presentation highlights the use of available bio-resources for value added sustainable polymeric products for Engineering, Commodity and Biomadical Applications. Biopolymers can be extracted from renewable feedstock such as plants, marine animals, insects, etc. It is noteworthy to mention that so far biopolymers extracted from these sources have limited applications in large scale plastic production. Among the available bio-based synthetic plastics, polylactic acid (PLA) has made its own place due to its biodegradability and potential to replace conventional fossil based plastics. It is noteworthy to mention that properties such as melting point, heat deflection temperature and gas barrier properties limits its use in high temperature commodity and engineering applications. However, these limitations can be overcome by developing new class of high molecular weight stereocomplex PLA (sc-PLA). In this context, we have synthesized sc-PLA and its sc-PLA-bionanocomposites by using different biobased nanofillers which includes cellulose nanocrystals, silk nanocrystals, modified chitosan, etc. The GPC analysis reveals that the synthesized stereo-complex based bionanocomposites have molecular weight higher than 100 kDa. The formation of stereocomplex crystallites is confirmed by the XRD analysis. Melting point of the composite is increased even higher than 225°C which suggests the formation of stereocomplex crystallites and the crystallization temperature is enhanced upto ~155°C at nanofillers loading of 5 wt%. Due to the presence of various bionanofillers, ultimate tensile strength is enhanced significantly. Based on the studies, it can be concluded that bionanofillers are good candidates for enhancing the stereocomplexation in the PLA. In this talk, fabrication strategies for synthesis of stereocomplex-PLA-bionanocomposites and evaluation of their properties along with possible applications will be discussed. This talk will also include the processing of these bionanocomposites into caste films and injection molded products for biomadical applications.
University of Illinois, USA
Keynote: Biopolymer-derived nanofibers and their applications as biomedical materials and adsorbents for heavy metals removal from polluted water
Time : 9:30-10:30
MSc-1977 (in Applied Physics), PhD (in Physics and Mathematics)-1980, DSc (Habilitation, (in Physics and Mathematics)-1989. Affiliations: The Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow (1977-1990); Professor at The Technion-Israel Institute of Technology (1990-2006; Eduard Pestel Chair Professor in Mechanical Engineering at The Technion in 1999-2006); Distinguished Professor at The University of Illinois at Chicago, USA (2006-present); Fellow of the American Physical Society. Prof. Yarin is the author of 4 books, 12 book chapters, 310 research papers, and 6 patents. Prof. Yarin was the Fellow of the Rashi Foundation, The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, and was awarded Gutwirth Award, Hershel Rich Prize and Prize for Technological Development for Defense against Terror of the American-Technion Society. He is one of the three co-Editors of “Springer Handbook of Experimental Fluid Mechanics”, 2007, and the Associate Editor of the journal “Experiments in Fluids”.
Solution blowing of such plant-derived biomaterials as soy protein, zein, lignin, oats, sodium alginate and cellulose acetate, and such animal-derived biomaterials as silk protein (sericin), chitosan and bovine serum albumin, was demonstrated as a versatile, robust and industrially scalable approach to form monolithic and core-shell nanofibers from bio-waste. Mechanical properties of such nanofiber mats were investigated. The collected nanofiber mats were also bonded both chemically (using aldehydes and ionic cross-linkers) and physically (by means of wet and thermal treatment) to increase the tensile strength to widen the range of applications of such green nonwovens. Fluorescent dye Rhodamine B was used as a model hydrophilic drug in controlled release experiments after it had been encapsulated in solution-blown soy protein-containing hydrophilic nanofibers and the release kinetics associated with dye desorption was studied in detail. Also, the antibacterial activity of solution-blown soy protein nanofiber mats decorated with silver nanoparticles was studied. Nanofiber membranes containing such biopolymers as lignin, oats, soy protein, sodium alginate and chitosan were used for heavy metals adsorption from aqueous solutions in equilibrium in the batch experiments, as well as under the throughflow conditions. The results revealed attractive capabilities of these inexpensive nano-textured biopolymer adsorbents formed from waste materials using the process scalable to the industrial level. The results also elucidated the physico-chemical mechanisms of heavy metal adsorption on biopolymers.
- Advanced Biopolymers
Location: "Hyatt Regency Osaka, Osaka, Japan 1-13-11 Nanko-Kita Suminoe-Ku 559-0034 Osaka Japan"
As a Principal Member, Sandia National Laboratories
Title: Cultivation and utilization of cyanobacterial exopolysaccharide for production of biobased polymers
Time : 11:50-12:35
As a Principal Member of Technical Staff at Sandia National Laboratories, Ryan’s research has focused on science and technology for production of biobased commodities from renewable feedstocks using nonarable land and non-freshwater resources. Ryan recieved his Ph.D. in Physical Chemistry from the University of New Mexico and completed post-doctoral studies at Sandia Laboratories in New Mexico and California. Ryan has published >25 articles in peer-reviewed journals and is director of the Sandia Algae Raceway Testbed Facility
Development of polycultures has been identified as a potential means for overcoming several challenges facing scale-up of algae-based commodities which can displace petroleum but do not compete with food production. In this presentation, we describe findings from our recent studies on cultivation of a marine cyanobacterial consortium in open algae raceways, and downstream conversion to bioplastic. In the consortium, three distinct cyanobacterial cultivars were combined to provide nitrogen fixation, photoprotection, and high rates of secretion of extracellular polysaccharides in support of a long-term bioproduct ‘milking’ strategy. Following lab-scale investigations of various combinations of the individial cultivars to identify optimal algae raceway inoculation and maintenance strategies, the best performing consortia were successfully cultivated in pilot-scale algae raceways for >120 days. The growth trials indicated bioproduct concentrations >2 g/L consisting primarily of a variety of C5 and C6 monosugars which were recovered using a low-cost semi-continuous harvesting strategy. In addition to the remarkable stability of the consortium in open cultivation, measurements of culture density time course indicated insignificantly different log-phase specific growth rates at different levels of nitrate or carbon dioxide addition, which should have significant techno-economic and sustainability impacts for commercialization. Following recovery of the biomass and exopolymer, generation of cyanobacterial-derived bioplastic was demonstrated and performance characteristics were found to be similar to common biobased plastics, such as PLA. Initial technoeconomic analysis based on the product yield and corresponding biomass production, harvesting, and conversion costs indicate an Nth-plant model finished product cost of $600/ton.
- Biopolymers: Biomedical and Environmental Applications
Location: "Hyatt Regency Osaka, Osaka, Japan 1-13-11 Nanko-Kita Suminoe-Ku 559-0034 Osaka Japan"
Beste Balci graduated from the Department of Chemical Engineering at Izmir Institute of Technology. Then, she completed her MSc degree at the Biofunctional Materials Laboratory at the same institution under the supervision of Assistant Professor Ayben Top. During her MSc studies she has focused on the development of PEG-peptide based pH responsive drug delivery systems for cancer therapy and this study was financially supported by TUBITAK (The Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey) with a grant number of 112S554 during 2013-2016. Currently, she is a PhD. student at Kyoto University.
Statement of the Problem: pH responsive drug delivery systems (DDS) have been developed to increase therapeutic activity of the drug and to overcome multidrug resistance problem of cancer cells. One of the drawbacks of the DDS with pH sensitive moieties where drug molecules are hold via intermolecular interactions is considerable release of the cargo at physiological pH. Although chemically attaching the drug to the carrier molecule can minimize the drug release at neutral pH, these configurations suffer from slow release at acidic conditions as well. In this study, a pH responsive DDS containing both pH responsive functional groups and acid cleavable chemical bond between drug and carrier molecule was proposed. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: mPEG-peptide based doxorubicin delivery system (mPEG-AT1-DOX) containing pH responsive histidines and hydrazone bond was developed and its performance was compared with peptide-free DDS, mPEG-DOX having hydrazone bond. Findings: Hydrodynamic diameters of mPEG-DOX were determined as 9 ± 0.5 and 7 ± 0.5 nm at pH 7.4 and pH 5.0, respectively. mPEG-AT1-DOX, on the other hand, exhibited a size distribution between 20 and 100 nm centered at about 40 nm at acidic pH much larger than its mean size at neutral pH measured as 12 ± 2 nm. Enhanced pH responsiveness of mPEG-AT1-DOX was also confirmed by the comparison of the percentage of DOX release values of both DDS evaluated at pH 7.4 and pH 5.0. Cytotoxicity of the DDS was assessed using A549 cell line. DOX equivalent absolute IC50 values were obtained as 1.8 ± 0.9, 40.3 ± 10.9, and 10.2 ± 1.4 µM for free DOX, mPEG-DOX, and mPEG-AT1-DOX, respectively. Conclusion & Significance: Superior pH sensitivity and cytotoxicity of mPEG-AT1-DOX indicated utilization of both pH responsive functional groups and acid cleavable chemical bond can be a promising approach in the design of DDS for cancer therapy.
- Biopolymers and Biodegradable Plastics
Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Tajikistan Republic
Time : 15:10-15:55
Zayniddin K. Muhidinov obtained his University degree in Chemistry at the Tajik State University and a Ph.D. in Chemistry of Natural Compounds and Doctor of Science degree in Polymer Chemistry at Chemistry Institute of Academy of Sciences of the Tajikistan Republic. Dr. Muhidinov passed doctoral courses at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India in 1998-1999 and the Temple University, Philadelphia, PA USA in 2003. In last 14 years his group collaborating with USDA scientists in several projects pertaining to develop domestic agricultural byproducts into Drug Delivery Systems (DDS) for therapeutic purposes. His most recent project deals with the study of herbal biological active compounds. Professor Muhidinov is the author of a monograph; four chapters of the book (published by the American Chemical and Royal Societies) more than 290 scientific articles and abstracts, including 38 paper in peer reviewd journals, 10 patebts.
Statement of the Problem: Roots of medical plants are important resources of bioactive compounds including a polysaccharide, many of which, have been reported to possess various biological functions. Two types of water-soluble (WSP) and acid-soluble polysaccharides (ASP) with 23% and 8% yields, the molecular weight of 495 kDa and 179 kDa respectively were obtained from the roots of Eremurus hissaricus growing in Tajikistan in dormancy periods. The crude polysaccharides after deproteinization were purified by ion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography to obtain a homogeneous polysaccharide. The monosaccharide composition of WSP and ASP were analyzed by HPAEC-PAD. WSP was composed of D- mannose and D- glucose in 1.7:1 molar ratio. ASP content includes the pectic polysaccharide. IR spectra and analysis of 2D NMR analyses of WSP provide evidence that it has a backbone of (1→4)-linked ß-D-glucopyranosyl and ß-D-mannopyranosyl. The NMR and FTIR spectra of both crude and purified WSP has no differences. This fact probably indicates that WSP has no significant impurity. The carboxyl group of WSP is highly esterified. The NMR analyses of the ASP and deproteinated ASP polysaccharides suggest that the samples are composed of rhamnose, galactose or glucose, xylose, and arabinose, with partially methyl- and acetylated carboxyl groups, which may be consistent with a branched pectic rhamnogalacturonan. Unfortunately, monosaccharide analysis has not yet been performed on these samples. The NMR spectra of the ASP-S3 sample is similar to the other two, but it appears to lack resonances assignable to xylose. It is unclear what this means. The bands at 801 cm-1 in the FTIR of the ASP samples were characteristic of the a-pyranose configuration of sugar unit of the pectin polysaccharide, while the absorption in the region of 880-890 cm-1 confirms the presence of ß-pyranose configuration of another sugar residue in the WSP.
Fig. 1. Tuber roots of Eremurus Hissaricus (1&2) and schema for extraction (3), purification of WS- and AS- polysaccharides (4) and structural analysis (5).
- Biopolymers: Applications and Trends
Thammasat University Thailand
Title: The Effect of Branching Agent on the Processability and Mechanical Properties of Polylactic Acid/Natural Rubber Blown Film
Time : 14:05-14:50
Dr. Cattaleeya Pattamaprom is currently the head of polymer and rubber technology center and an associate professor at the department of chemical engineering, Thammasat University, Thailand. She obtained her doctoral degree specialized on theoretical modeling of polymer rheology from the department of chemical engineering, University of Michigan, USA. Her research areas include rheology and theoretical modelling of polymer and rubber, polymer and rubber modification, polymer/rubber processing, composites and blends. Most recently, her research focuses on value adding and sustainable use and development of biopolymer and natural rubber products. With her background as a chemical engineer, another area of her expertise is on heat transfer, heat exchanger design and biodiesel
Polylactic acid (PLA) is currently known to be the cheapest and the most prevalent commercial bioplastic. However, its poor toughness and processability limited its applications in film blowing products. In this study, improvement in the toughness of PLA was investigated by blending with natural rubber (NR) with the aid of a plasticizer. The improvement in the bubble stability during film blowing process was investigated by using a peroxide branching agent (BA). The compound of PLA, NR and a branching agent (PLA/NR/BA) was prepared by reactive melt blending method. The parameters investigated are the PLA to NR ratio and the content of branching agent on the mechanical properties, processability, and morphology of the blend. The results indicated that NR could increase the tensile toughness and elongation at break of PLA blown films and the use of higher amount of branching agent could allow stable processing of PLA/NR blends at higher NR content. The reactions of branching agent with PLA and NR were verified by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.
Walter Eevers Flemish Institute for technological research, Belgium
Walter Eevers acts as director R&D for the Flemish Institute for technological research (VITO) and as visiting professor Polymer chemistry at Antwerp University. After obtaining his PhD and MBA he worked for 20 years as director R&D and Innovation at Nitto. Already during his private career he started a research group in biobased polymer developments for industrial and medical applications. He has over 30 publications and patents on innovations in polymer and materials developments. Furthermore he has been involved in several spin off companies in innovative technologies derived from VITO’s research activities. Recently he has set up a new research group dedicated to incorporation of lignin based monomers and oligomers for materials developments replacing fossil based aromatic building blocks; furthermore he has been one of the founding father of the CO2 Value Europe association that endeavors the full acceptance of the utilization of CO2 a valuable building block for innovative chemistry.
Statement of the Problem: BTX (benzene, toluene, Xylene) represent a massive 120B$ and 14.2Mtons market of numerous chemicals and products used worldwide. The fight against climate change has convinced many brand-owners to push for more renewables to be incorporated in their product ranges. Furthermore the strong growth of shale gas as energy and feedstock source has demonstrated that the traditional C3 feedstock for aromatics is reduced at the origin. The need for alternative sources for this multiple of products is driven as well by supply as demand. The purpose of this study is to describe the potential of lignin as feedstock for novel polymers and foams. Methodology & Theoretical Orientation: Starting from the insight in potential lignin sources, the variations in de-polymerization technologies available, a set of functionalized monomers and oligomers is prepared as starting point for the polymerization process. Additional introduction of epoxide groups or the introduction of lignin as a polyol in the urethane approach lead to new structures. The presence of residual functional groups on the lignin segments contribute to variations in the physical mechanical properties of the polymers. Simultaneously with the technical evaluation of the potential innovative materials for different applications an economic analysis of these material developments is integrated in the study in order to safeguard the potential introduction of the innovative technologies in existing applications of aromatic polymers. Conclusion & Significance: The widespread availability of lignin in many different places in the world is creating great opportunity to simultaneously develop new materials without dependency on oil as a feedstock but also as a contribution to fighting climate change. Simultaneously a complete new value chain is being developed creating great new business opportunities for new actors in the world.
Fig: Development strategies for demand driven innovation with lignin based feedstock towards innovative materials